上海品茶网UDV

Gastropod predation patterns in Pliocene and Recent pectinid bivalves from Antarctica and New Zealand

first_imgBoreholes in the large, extinct Antarctic Neogene pectinid Zygochlamys anderssoni suggest that this scallop was preyed upon by a large predatory muricid gastropod impossibly a Trophon species). The holes occur in mature individuals, which contrasts with the situation in modern Zygochlamys delicatula from New Zealand, where gastropod predation is apparently restricted to juveniles only. This difference is ascribed to dissimilarities in the lifestyles of these scallops; whereas the former was probably byssally attached throughout ontogeny, adults of the latter become tree living after an initial period of byssal attachment. During the late Pliocene, a change towards higher motility in Chlamys‐like pectinids of the Southern Ocean may have caused the loss of an important food source for the larger muricids.last_img read more

Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure of flapping and gliding in black-browed albatrosses

first_imgAlbatrosses are known to expend only a small amount of energy during flight. The low energy cost of albatross flight has been attributed to energy-efficient gliding (soaring) with sporadic flapping, although little is known about how much time and energy albatrosses expend in flapping versus gliding during cruising flight. Here, we examined the heart rates (used as an instantaneous index of energy expenditure) and flapping activities of free-ranging black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys) to estimate the energy cost of flapping as well as time spent in flapping activities. The heart rate of albatrosses during flight (144 beats min-1) was similar to that while sitting on the water (150 beats min-1). In contrast, heart rate was much higher during takeoff and landing (ca. 200 beats min-1). Heart rate during cruising flight was linearly correlated with the number of wing flaps per minute, suggesting an extra energy burden of flapping. Albatrosses expend only 4.6% ± 1.4% of their time in flapping during cruising flight, which was significantly lower than those during and shortly after takeoff (9.8% ± 3.5%). Flapping activity, which amounted to just 4.6% of the time in flight, accounted for 13.3% of the total energy expenditure during cruising flight. These results support the idea that albatrosses achieve energy-efficient flight by reducing the time spent in flapping activity, which is associated with high energy expenditure.last_img read more