A Glimpse of the Future MEMS-based Storage: Totally Green & Thumbnail Size SEM image of the device (the thickness of the azo1 film is about 120 nm.) Image credit: Journal of the American Chemical Society Image credit: Journal of the American Chemical Society More information: A Small-Molecule-Based Ternary Data-Storage Device, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP, DOI:10.1021/ja910243f This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A group of scientists, led by Ritesh Agarwal at the University of Pennsylvania, have previously used inorganic compounds to develop a reliable ternary data storage that is erasable, but Lu and Gu’s prototype is the first reliable ternary system using an organic compound in a permanent data storage device.High-density data storage (HDDS) systems are needed to store the ever increasing amounts of information. The prototype developed at Soochow University could lead to a massive increase in the potential memory density in future electronics devices.The paper is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Explore further Citation: Organic ternary data storage device developed (2010, April 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-ternary-storage-device.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — The memory capacity of electronics devices could be increased in future thanks to an organic data storage system using ternary rather than binary data storage. The current prototype is designed for permanent data storage, and can be written once but read multiple times, but the Chinese researchers hope to develop re-writable data storage based on the technology. Binary systems record data as a switchable series of zeros and ones, whereas ternary systems record data as zeros, ones or twos, which are also electrically switchable states. The extra value theoretically means much more data could be stored in the same amount of storage space. Ternary systems already exist, but are mostly experimental.A new system, developed by Hongwei Gu and Jianmei Lu and colleagues at Soochow University, Suzhou in eastern China, is a ternary system using a new synthesized organic azo compound sandwiched between aluminum and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Each electrode unit acts as a data storage unit, which acts in a similar way to the magnetized patches in a hard disk that store data. When a voltage is applied to the aluminum electrode, the ease of electron flow (and density of molecular stacking) in the azo compound is changed to a low, medium or high conductivity state that corresponds to zero, one, or two respectively.
Explore further Citation: Dynamic Vision Sensor tech works like human retina (2013, August 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-dynamic-vision-sensor-tech-human.html (Phys.org) —If technology expertise can advance artificial intelligence, what can we imagine for artificial vision? An interesting development in artificial vision comes from a Swiss company iniLabs. They have developed a camera that behaves like the human eye, based on the wonders of the human retina. Just as robotics developers take their cues from biology, this Swiss team has recognized how biology can inspire an alternative to conventional machine vision. The workings of the human eye require far less power than a digital camera would require and leave less information to be processed. Borrowing from the way the eye functions, the company has built a more efficient digital camera. Vision sensors keep their eye on the ball at Euro 2008 © 2013 Phys.org More information: www.inilabs.com/products/dvs128www.inilabs.com/images/documents/DVS-Flyer.pdf www.inilabs.com/products/dvs128/videos Zurich-based iniLabs Ltd is a spinoff of the Institute of Neuroinformatics of the University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich. They describe their business as designing, producing, and selling neurotechnological systems. Their eye-like camera is the VS128 Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS).Making a case for DVS advantages, iniLabs said that conventional vision sensors see the world as a series of frames, which is inefficient. “Successive frames contain enormously redundant information, wasting energy, computational power and time. In addition, each frame imposes the same exposure time on every pixel, making it impossible to process scenes containing very dark and very bright regions.”The DVS, in contrast, works like the human retina. Power, data storage and computational requirements are drastically reduced, and the dynamic sensor range is increased by orders of magnitude due to the local processing—no sending out of entire images at fixed frame rates. “Only the local pixel-level changes caused by moving in a scene are transmitted – at exactly the time they occur. The result is a stream of events at microsecond time resolution, equivalent to or better than conventional high-speed vision sensors running at thousands of frames per second.” DVS has been built to work with IBM’s brainlike architecture called TrueNorth. Just as the Swiss team is inspired by biology, IBMs TrueNorth technology has been focusing on a biology-inspired programming approach that mimics what goes on inside the brain. The technical definition of TrueNorth is “a novel modular, non-von Neumann, ultra-low power, compact architecture.” MIT Technology Review explains TrueNorth ‘s approach in that it “stores and processes information in a distributed, parallel way, like the neurons and synapses in a brain.”The price of the DVS is about $2700 and could be put to work in areas such as microscopy, recording traffic and robotics—scenarios in spotting changes, where quick reaction times are necessary. The iniLabs team poses examples of what kinds of solutions the DVS brings: “You need to react quickly to moving objects in uneven lighting conditions. Conventional video cameras are too slow and specialized high frame rate cameras produce too much data to process in real time. Both of these conventional solutions require very high and even lighting at high frame rate.” That is where the DVS sensor could be of help. The company site shows a robotic goalie with 550 effective frames per second performance at 4 percent processor load. Another use could be in sleep disorder research. “Conventional video cameras record huge amounts of boring data where the subject is not moving, making it very labor intensive to manually annotate the behaviors.” The company said that the DVS “only outputs subject movements. Instead of playing back the data at constant frame rate, you can play it back at constant event rate, so that the action is continuous.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2014 Phys.org Biology was big last week as scientists revised the timeline of human origins—a team of researchers has found evidence that suggests that perhaps some of the traits we define as uniquely human developed at different times, rather than all together during one period as has been thought. Another team wondered which happened first: Did sounds form words, or words form sentences? They’ve found evidence (by studying animals) that suggests early humans developed syntax before phonemes (distinct sounds that differentiate words from one another). And yet another team has unveiled what may be the core of our existence as the evolution of life’s operating system is revealed in detail—they’ve shed light on many new aspects of the evolution of the ribosome—the large molecular structure common to all cell species.On the medical front really big news from Cancer Research UK—Four in 10 pancreatic cancers could be prevented by lifestyle changes. If people would only maintain a healthy weight, quit smoking and maybe get some exercise, the researchers report, they’d drastically reduce their chance of getting one of the most deadly types of cancer.It was a pretty good week for technology development as well. A team of researchers built a biological robot and showed muscle-powered bio-bots walk on command. The bots were propelled by muscle cells zapped with an electric current. Also Cubify announced Ekocycle 3D printer uses recycled plastic bottles as component in filament cartridges—Entertainer Will.i.am is pushing the idea of making recycling “cool.”And finally, food for thought as a team has found that having something to do is better than being alone with their thoughts for most people. Turns out, people don’t do well when left to sit and ponder—they don’t like it. They’d much rather have something to do, even if it means hurting themselves. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Best of Last Week – Science that stumped Einstein, revising human timeline and a simple way to reduce pancreatic cancers (2014, July 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-07-week-science-stumped-einstein-human.html Explore further Remote quantum applications, teleportation enabled by calling long distance between superconducting qubits (Phys.org) —For 112 years, the best minds in science haven’t been able to fully understand how superconductors do what they do. Last week, Louise Lerner of Argonne National Laboratory, published an article reminding everyone of the science that stumped Einstein, suggesting that perhaps it’s time someone figured it out. In other physics news, a team of researchers reported: Remote quantum applications, teleportation enabled by calling long distance between superconducting qubits. They’ve developed a way to allow superconducting quantum chips to communicate with each other over large distances—through an optical fiber cable, which should, they claim, allow for quantum entanglement or teleportation. Schematic of the superconducting optical interface
© 2014 Phys.org , Nature Genetics Two years after the sequencing of the genome of one variety of tomato, scientists have sequenced the genomes of 360 tomato varieties. By analyzing the relationships among these genomes, Sanwen Huang of the Institute of Vegetables and Flowers at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and his colleagues have reconstructed the genetic history of the tomato, from its origins as a pea-sized wild plant growing in South America’s Andes region to the many varieties found worldwide today. The research appears in Nature. More information: Nature Genetics (2014) DOI: 10.1038/ng.3117 Explore further Journal information: Nature Citation: Researchers uncover tomato’s genetic history (2014, October 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-uncover-tomato-genetic-history.html Wild tomato species focus of antioxidant study The tomato is the world’s leading vegetable crop. In 2012, global harvests yielded more than 162 million tons of tomatoes, worth more than 55 billion dollars. Understanding how the tomato’s genetic profile affects its taste, size and hardiness could increase consumer satisfaction while making the tomato industry even more profitable. That same year, Huang was part of a team of researchers who sequenced the genome of the Heinz 1706 variety of tomato, a processing tomato used to make ketchup. Huang and his current team knew that to improve breeding processes, scientists must understand the genetic profiles of the many different tomato varieties that exist today and the relationships between them. The researchers wanted to learn how the tomato genome has changed since the fruit was first domesticated, and then transported around the globe and bred for commercial purposes. They sequenced the genomes of 333 varieties of red tomato, 10 varieties of wild tomato and 17 modern commercial hybrids. They studied the change in the tomato’s size over time and found that the increase in tomato size since its domestication had involved a two-step process. At first, selection for size, the primary purpose of tomato breeding, resulted in the creation of cherry tomatoes. Big-fruited tomatoes appeared later.Huang’s team was able to identify the genetic differences between processing tomatoes and big-fruited tomatoes, which consumers eat fresh. Processing tomatoes are hardier, with more soluble fruit content and lycopene content, than big-fruited tomatoes. The researchers found the genetic signature for the processing tomato, with the genes responsible for its phenotype located on chromosome 5.They also located the gene that makes some tomatoes pink on chromosome 1. While globally, red-fruited tomatoes are most popular, pink-fruited tomatoes are very popular in China and Japan.Despite the wide variation in tomato phenotypes that exist today, Huang and his colleagues found that there is, in fact, very little genetic variation among the modern tomato varieties. Human selection has fixed a large proportion of the tomato genome. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
As the planet continues on its apparently inevitable march to a warmer future, scientists the world over are scrambling to understand what impact it will have—from rising ocean levels to crop production. In this latest effort, the researchers sought to find out what might happen to wheat yields in the United States as temperatures rise. To say that wheat is an important crop is an understatement, it accounts for 20 percent of total daily calories consumed by humans across the globe, and represents a far higher ratio for many people in third world countries. Scientists have been working hard for many years to increase the amount of wheat grain that a farmer can get from a given field—currently such yields are still seeing increases of approximately 1 percent each year, which is remarkable. But that may change soon, this newest research suggests.For over thirty years, winter wheat trials have been taking place in Kansas, home to one of the largest producers of wheat—$2.8 billion worth in 2013 alone. That trial has yielded a lot of data, some of which the research team found indicated that modern strains are vulnerable to both extremely high and low temperatures. The low temperatures are not much of a concern in this study of course, but the high temperatures appeared to cause significant yield reductions—they even found a cutoff point—34 degrees Celsius. Overall they found a 15 percent reduction in yields when temperatures rose on average just 2 degrees Celsius and a 40 percent decline when average temperatures went up just 4 degrees. Sadly, they also found that more modern plants were more vulnerable than older strains.What this means, the researchers suggest, is that places that currently grow wheat are likely to suffer as global warming progresses. Currently, it is not clear if land lying north, where it will presumably be colder, will be able to support the level of predicted yield needs for the future. Credit: Wikipedia © 2015 Phys.org Study finds climate change may dramatically reduce wheat production Explore further (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers, one each from Mississippi State University, Kansas State University and the University of Arkansas has found evidence that suggests global warming will cause a reduction in U.S. wheat production in the years ahead. In their study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Jesse Tack, Andrew Barkley and Lawton Lanier Nalley describe how they studied winter wheat production for an area in Kansas and compared it against weather data and what they found by doing so. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: New evidence that global warming will hurt US wheat production (2015, May 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-evidence-global-wheat-production.html More information: Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields, Jesse Tack, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415181112 AbstractClimate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September−May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Citation: Statistical study offers evidence of warning signs before Neolithic community collapse (2016, August 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-08-statistical-evidence-neolithic-collapse.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers, two with the University of Maryland and the other with University College London has found that early Neolithic communities exhibited warning signs before collapsing. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sean Downey, W. Randall Haas, Jr. and Stephen Shennan describe the statistical analysis they conducted on data that has been collected through prior efforts from Neolithic communities that existed approximately 9,000 years ago and what they learned as a result. Knowing when a given community, town or city is about to collapse could prove useful in the future as the planet continues to warm—how such communities responded to stresses that have occurred in the past, the researchers found, may offer clues to the robustness of modern communities.The European Neolithic was a time of huge population growth as agriculture allowed people to move into larger and larger communities and that allowed for technological advancement as many people discovered they no longer needed to spend their days hunting or growing food. But it was also a time of instability as increased population densities allowed diseases to spread more easily. There was also war and the always problematic unpredictable weather. Sometimes, such events led to the total collapse of a community. But before that happened, the researchers with this new effort contend, there were warning signs.To learn more about societal collapse during the Neolithic, the researchers pored over papers documenting archeological digs looking for population numbers along with information regarding evidence of prior events that may have signaled coming trouble. The focus of their research was how communities had responded to stresses in their recent past. Those that were not able to fully recover between events, they noted, were at the most risk of total collapse when a new event occurred. They dubbed such events early warning signals (EWSs). They then tried the opposite approach, looking first for EWSs for a given community and then using them to try to predict whether a given community eventually collapsed—they report that they found such signals to be remarkably accurate. They suggest similar models could be used to help predict which if any modern communities may be in for a similar fate. Explore further More information: Sean S. Downey et al. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1602504113AbstractEcosystems on the verge of major reorganization—regime shift—may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8–4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Ancient dental plaque sheds new light on the diet of Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans A regime shift model of population growth rate variability, radiocarbon date calibration, and EWSs that demonstrates CSD in growth rates can be recovered from simulated SPDs. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1602504113 © 2016 Phys.org
Observation of ordered polar structure. a, b, Cross-sectional dark-field TEM images of a (SrTiO3)16/(PbTiO3)16/(SrTiO3)16 trilayer (a) and a [(SrTiO3)16/(PbTiO3)16]8 superlattice (b), revealing a regular in-plane modulation of about 8 nm. c, d, Planar-view dark-field STEM imaging shows the widespread occurrence of nanometre-size round and elongated features in a (SrTiO3)4/(PbTiO3)11/(SrTiO3)11 trilayer (c) and only circular features in a [(SrTiO3)16/(PbTiO3)16]8 superlattice (d) along the  and  directions. The STEM studies were repeated in a minimum of 10 separate samples and the observations were repeatable. Insets, FFT of the images in c and d show a ring-like distribution with stronger intensities along the cubic directions—the same feature seen in RSM studies. Credit: Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1092-8 Simulation of a single polar skyrmion. Red arrows signify that this is a left-handed skyrmion. The other arrows represent the angular distribution of the dipoles. Credit: Xiaoxing Cheng, Pennsylvania State University; C.T. Nelson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Berkeley Lab Zubko describes skyrmions as “tiny whorls of magnetic moments,” and notes that a lot of research has been done with them because they are very useful in data storage applications. But he also notes that finding electrical versions of skyrmions has been a difficult journey. That may change, however, as the researchers with this new effort report a way to create and observe at least one kind of electrically based skyrmion—the polar skyrmion.Zubko notes that the researchers started with the observation that ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics, despite being very different, have some basic similar properties—spontaneous magnetization and polarization are just one example. He suggests it is this property that makes both such a draw for data storage applications. He also notes that scientists have been searching for some time for polarization in ferroelectrics that rotate in a way that could lead to the creation of skyrmions. Prior work has shown that when ferroelectrics are confined at the nanoscale, they become more sensitive to stresses and electric fields, which can upset polar orientation and give way to dipoles. In such scenarios, small regions of dipoles with the same orientation can form spontaneously and those regions will have boundary walls separating them from other regions. More information: S. Das et al. Observation of room-temperature polar skyrmions, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1092-8Press release Journal information: Nature Army-funded research discovery may allow for development of novel device structures that can be used to improve logic/memory, sensing, communications, and other applications for the Army as well as industry. Image demonstrates simulation of emergent chirality in polar skyrmions for the first time in oxide superlattices. Credit: Xiaoxing Cheng, Pennsylvania State University; C.T. Nelson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Ramamoorthy Ramesh, University of California, Berkeley Physicists show skyrmions can exist in ferroelectrics Explore further Citation: Researchers report observation of room-temperature polar skyrmions (2019, April 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-room-temperature-polar-skyrmions.html In their work, the researchers noted that the domain walls had polarization components that were perpendicular to those that resided next to them. They found that all it took was looping a domain wall between regions to force a ring of polarization to develop, which led to the creation of bubbles—polar skyrmions. The team then used an electron microscope that was capable of showing atomic displacement to observe the skyrmions. They further report that X-ray diffraction of the skyrmions showed them to have macroscopic chirality. Zubko suggests that much more work will need to be done with the skyrmions to find out if they will work with real-world applications, such as racetrack memory devices. Simulation of a single polar skyrmion. Red arrows signify that this is a left-handed skyrmion. The other arrows represent the angular distribution of the dipoles. Credit: Xiaoxing Cheng, Pennsylvania State University; C.T. Nelson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Berkeley Lab Army-funded research discovery may allow for development of novel device structures that can be used to improve logic/memory, sensing, communications, and other applications for the Army as well as industry. Image demonstrates simulation of emergent chirality in polar skyrmions for the first time in oxide superlattices. Credit: Xiaoxing Cheng, Pennsylvania State University; C.T. Nelson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Ramamoorthy Ramesh, University of California, Berkeley © 2019 Science X Network An international team of researchers has discovered a way to create and observe room-temperature polar skyrmions. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes creating the polar skyrmions and their observations. Pavlo Zubko, with the London Centre for Nanotechnology, has published a News and Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
But could the vehicles with the “Baby on Board” signs themselves be a potential road hazard? Overall, the results show that drivers with child passengers represent a specific driver population with different factors behind their risks for fatal crashes. On the surface, they appear to avoid hazardous behaviors, but that may be offset by the distractions children create while giggling or crying in the backseat. Gaspar, J. G., Street, W. N., Windsor, M. B., Carbonari, R., Kaczmarski, H., Kramer, A. F., & Mathewson, K. E. (2014). Providing views of the driving scene to drivers’ conversation partners mitigates cell-phone-related distraction. Psychological Science, 25(12), 2136-2146. doi: 10.1177/0956797614549774 Scientists have already found that drivers’ risk of crashing rises when they have anyone in the car with them. Among those researchers is John Gaspar at the University of Iowa, who in a 2014 driving simulator experiment showed that, while collisions may increase overall when a driver has a passenger in the car, the risk dropped when that person stayed quiet during challenging conditions. Children, however, are not likely to regulate their demands for attention based on road conditions, and that can disturb even the most cautious drivers. In fact, a 2014 survey by emergency medicine researchers found that, in the preceding month, almost 70% of the 570 respondents had fed a child passenger and 40% had picked up a child’s toy while driving. Their analysis showed some complex findings. Here are a few of them: • Adults with only children as passengers were more likely to be at fault in fatal crashes than were people driving solo or with only adult passengers. • When transporting children only, female drivers were twice as likely as males to be involved in fatal crashes. In comparison, male drivers who had both adults and children in the car were more likely than females to crash. University of Helsinki psychological scientist Ida Maasalo and colleagues wanted to understand some specific characteristics of fatal crashes involving child passengers. Their source was the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database, which is based on police reports and contains information about crashes that occurred on US roads and resulted in at least one death. They looked at two-car crashes only, in which just one driver was at fault. They then divided the passengers into two categories: children age 9 and under and adult riders. (Passengers age 16 and older were categorized as adults, since they are old enough to help the driver spot hazards on the road and to attend to young children riding in the vehicle.) They looked at the characteristics of the drivers, and compared crashes occurring at intersections with non-junction incidents. • Males also were more likely to be driving while speeding, intoxicated, or without a seat belt when they were driving with only children, and not adults, in the vehicle. • Adults with only children as passengers were more likely to be at fault in fatal crashes than were people driving solo or with only adult passengers. Maasalo, I., Lehtonen, E., Summala, H. (2019). Drivers with child passengers: distracted or cautious? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 131, 25-32. • Drivers with only child passengers in the vehicle were more commonly in crashes involving inattention compared to those with a child and adult in the car. But those victims were less likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors, such as speeding or leaving their seat belts unfastened. The age of the child passengers also made a difference, depending on the location of the crash. In non-junction crashes, drivers carrying children age 4 and under were more likely to be at fault than those with older children in the vehicle. But those odds reversed for crashes occurring at intersections. References Macy, M.L., Carter, P.M., Bingham, C.R., Cunningham, R.M., Freed, G.L., 2014. Potential distractions and unsafe driving behaviors among drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children. Academic Pediatrics, 14(3), 279-286. Since emerging as a fad in the 1980s, “Baby on Board” stickers have persisted as a staple of rear windshields and bumpers on cars and minivans. According to urban legend, the death of an infant in a traffic accident led to the creation of the signs, but in truth they were created by two sisters from Massachusetts to warn drivers of the young lives at stake should they choose to drive recklessly.
Chip Somodevilla https://ondemand.npr.org/anon.npr-mp3/npr/me/2019/08/20190830_me_as_fec_nears_sh… As FEC Nears Shutdown, Priorities Such As Stopping Election… by NPR News Brian Naylor 8.30.19 7:20am Barring some kind of miraculous last-minute reprieve, Friday will be the last business day that the Federal Election Commission will be able to function for quite a while, leaving the enforcement of federal campaign finance laws unattended ahead of the 2020 election. The commission’s vice chairman, Matthew Petersen, announced his resignation earlier this week, to take effect at the end of the month. With Petersen gone, the FEC will be down to three members, and won’t have a quorum. In addition to collecting campaign finance data, the FEC investigates potential campaign finance violations, issues fines and gives guidance to campaigns about following election law — but not without a working quorum of at least four commissioners. “To not have the FEC able to take action right now is deeply concerning,” says Daniel Weiner, a former senior counsel at the FEC, who’s now with the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University law school.In particular, Weiner is concerned about another attempt by Russia or other actors to interfere in the 2020 election. “After 2016, it’s become very clear that it is almost certain that the Russian government and potentially other U.S. rivals will seek to interfere in the U.S. election, including through online propaganda, cybersecurity incursions and other tactics,” Weiner told NPR. As the regulator for campaign spending, he describes the FEC as one of the “frontline” agencies combating foreign interference.The FEC has been in the midst of strengthening disclosure and transparency requirements for online political ads of the sort that Russian operatives used to manipulate voters in 2016. The lack of a quorum, Weiner says, “will make that impossible until that seat is filled.”It’s not clear how long the FEC will be effectively shut down. President Trump nominated Republican Trey Trainor to serve on the commission, but the Senate has not yet acted on the nomination. In the past, nominees have been paired, with one from each party. Congressional Democrats have yet to announce any nominees from their party.Former FEC chair Michael Toner says he fears there is a “real possibility” the FEC could lack a quorum through the 2020 election.But that doesn’t mean the agency will completely go dark. “Public disclosure reports will continue to be due and will need to be filed by campaigns and PACs and committees, and those reports will be reviewed by the FEC staff just as they always are. So that’s important,” said Toner. Similarly, the agency’s popular website will continue to operate, allowing people to get information on campaign fundraising and spending. Toner argues the agency’s inability to act without four commissioners won’t mean that campaign finance will become a “legal free zone.” There’s a five-year statute of limitations on campaign finance violations, and FEC complaints can still be filed with the agency. “At some point, presumably, the agency will regain a quorum,” said Toner, “and will be able take action on enforcement cases. So campaigns and committees still have to follow the law.”But Meredith McGehee, executive director of Issue One, a campaign reform group, isn’t so sure they will. “It’s kind of like saying there’s a law against robbing banks,” she said. “Ninety-nine point nine percent of the population will still not rob a bank if there wasn’t a policeman. But there’s always that element there that’s going to be looking for an opportunity to get away with it.”And I think what’s really different about politics is that there’s both so much gray area and there is political disagreement about the laws anyway.”The FEC is not the only government agency unable to act because of a lack of a quorum. The Merit Systems Protection Board, which investigates allegations of violations of federal personnel practices, including the Hatch Act, hasn’t had one for over two years.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.
The residents of Sonia Vihar, Delhi, came up with a new initiative to promote clean river Yamuna. A one -day festival was celebrated by the Delhites at the bank of the river. The festival was a part of Yamuna aarti started by the local people of Sonia Vihar and surrounded areas. The event started with a kite festival that was attended by over hundred people from across the city. A street play, Kuch Baat Ho by Black Pearl Art was also organised that imparted the message to save and clean the natural resources.
Former Congress leader Sushil Kumar Sharma, serving life imprisonment for the gruesome murder of his wife Naina Sahni and trying to destroy evidence by burning the body in a restaurant’s tandoor, on Thursday got a breather for four more weeks, with Delhi high court extending his parole. Justice Siddharth Mridul, while granting relief said since Sharma’s parole has been extended on various occasions on the ground of his mother’s ailment, this was the “final” opportunity. He was asked to surrender before jail authorities on expiry of his parole without “demur”. “In view of the fact that the petitioner has remained in jail for over 20 years and is the only son of his 81-year-old father and 78-year-old mother, he has an obligation to provide medication to his ailing mother. I see no impediment in granting him one final parole. “The parole granted to the petitioner is resultantly extended for further four weeks from July 27 onwards on the same terms and conditions (issued on May 7 while granting him parole),” the court said, adding that “the petitioner also undertakes to surrender before the jail authorities on expiry of his parole without demur”.
Drinking concentrated beetroot juice increases muscle power in patients with heart failure, new research has found.“It is a small study, but we see robust changes in muscle power about two hours after patients drink the beet juice,” said study senior author Linda Peterson, associate professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.The researchers believe that high nitrate content in beet juice could explain the improved muscle power in the study participants.Earlier research had found that dietary nitrate improves muscle performance in many elite athletes. The nitrates in beet juice, spinach and other leafy green vegetables such as arugula and celery are processed by the body into nitric oxide, which is known to relax blood vessels and have other beneficial effects on metabolism.The researchers observed the most substantial benefit when the muscles moved at the highest velocities. The increase in muscle performance was significant in quick, power-based actions, but researchers saw no improvements in performance during longer tests that measure muscle fatigue.The researchers also pointed out that participants experienced no major side effects from the beet juice. The study appeared in the journal Circulation: Heart Failure.
Kolkata: The new stalls that will be handed over to affected hawkers at Gariahat, will have space for advertisements at the back. The new concept was floated by Mayor Firhad Hakim, at a meeting with the hawkers’ organisation on Tuesday.”The stalls will have an attractive look, shaped like a square box. All 30 garment stalls that will come up will have space for advertisements. The lighting will be in a manner so that the advertisements can be seen from a distance,” said Member, Mayor-in-Council (Central Store) Tarak Singh. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseAccording to a senior official of KMC, the stalls will initially have the image of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, with the message that the government is with the hawkers (Hawker Der Sathe, Hawker Der Pashe). “We will be welcoming advertisements from private companies, which will add to the revenue of the civic body. This is the reason why we are designing the stalls in an attractive manner,” the official added. The Central Store is working on structuring the stalls in consultation with the hawkers. It has been decided that among the 30 stalls which will come up, seven will measure 6×3 feet while 23 will be 6×4 feet. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIt may be mentioned that the hawkers at Gariahat were recently shown a model 6×4 feet stall but the hawkers wanted some alterations. The civic body has already prepared an artist’s impression of the stall but the design has not been completely finalised yet. “We have also planned a screen-like cover on top of the stall made of non-flammable material, so that customers face little difficulty in purchasing things even during the monsoon,” Singh said. A group of architects that the civic body has consulted, suggested that the stalls should not block the signboards of the permanent shops. After every 10 stalls, there will be a small exit. The exits will facilitate air circulation and enable hawkers and others to flee if there is an emergency. It may be recalled that a massive fire at Gariahat on January 20 had damaged 30 stalls.
The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) – a premier academic and research institute in the country, in collaboration with Best Book Buddies organized two days hands-on training programme for the use of Koha (Library Information System), on May 23 – 24, at its premises. Koha is open-source library management software, developed by the library community and made available free of cost for the use of librarians world-over. Koha is considered one of the best software in the world for libraries and every library wishes to migrate to it. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfDr Sachchidanand Joshi, Member Secretary, IGNCA, inaugurated the programme. While speaking on the occasion, he emphasized that Kalanidhi is the leading repository of research and reference resources in humanities and arts and such academic activities must be continued to benefit the masses. He invited scholars to work with Kala Nidhi on various personal collections of eminent scholars such as A K Coomarswami, Dr Devendra Swarup, Dr Kapila Vatsyayan, Dr Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Professor Hazari Prasad Dwivedi etc. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveDr Ramesh C Gaur, HOD (Kalanidhi) informed that the response was so overwhelming that within six hours the registration was closed. “Keeping it in view, it has been decided that Kala Nidhi, IGNCA, will organise such training programme once in every two months. Besides IGNCA Delhi, the plan is to organise KOHA training programmes at our regional centres at Bangalore, Ranchi, Varanasi, Gauhati and others,” he further added. Gandotra informed that BBB is providing Koha implementation, hosting, maintenance to libraries free of cost for ever, which would save a total of rupees five lacs per library. Best Book Buddies(BBB) is providing KOHA support service to libraries across 27 countries. IGNCA is also using Koha since last year, which was implemented by BBB.About 100 library professionals, students and users from all over India attended the training programme to understand the importance of Koha and the need of expanding its usage.
Kolkata: The wife of the nodal election officer, who went missing at Ranaghat in West Bengal’s Nadia district, has completely negated the ‘depression’ theory that has been doing rounds, according to her social media post. “I request everyone to circulate the news that my husband, Arnab Roy, W.B.C.S (EXE) is missing since 18/4/2019 since 12.30 p.m. onwards and I further want to clarify that HE WAS NOT SUFFERING FROM ANY KIND OF DEPRESSION AND WE HAVE A VERY HEALTHY AND HEARTY RELATION,” Anisha Jash, Roy’s wife wrote in a Facebook post, dismissing the ‘depression’ claims in caps. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata A senior police officer revealed that Roy, in his 30s, has been untraceable even on Friday. While Special Observer for West Bengal Ajay V. Nayak, appointed by the Election Commission (EC) mentioned that probably Roy was in depression. Asked about the nodal officer’s disappearance, Nayak had told reporters: “I think it has something to do with his personal life and probably he was in depression. As he is not around, I am told another officer has been given the charge.” Jash urged everyone ‘to stop spreading rumours and gossips’ and help her in finding him. “I don’t want anything except my husband right now and I shall go to the last extent to find him. I earnestly request everyone to share my post. I want my husband back,” Roy’s wife wrote.
Kolkata: Two persons were arrested at the Bidhannagar Cyber Crime police station on Monday night for allegedly creating a fake website of state Tribal Development Department and duping several job seekers. The duo have been remanded to six days police custody by the Bidhannagar Court on Tuesday.According to the police, during October, last year, the Additional Secretary of Tribal Development Department lodged a complaint stating that they had noticed a fake website in the name of their department. In the website, a “fake” order related to progress for the appointment for the rank of Group D in the department was upload. During the probe, cops came up with several mobile numbers. From those a few numbers were identified but police failed to trace them as the numbers were not active. Cops recently found that some of the suspected mobile numbers were active. Their location was traced in Midnapore Town. On Monday, a team from Bidhannagar Cyber Crime police station went West Midnapore and arrested two persons identified as Diptish Palit and Jugal Kishor Das Adhikari.
Being socially ostracised inspires feelings of anger, sadness and revenge in humans, some of whom even express interest in joining gangs after being left out, finds a research. According to Andy Hales, a postdoctoral researcher in social psychology from the University of Virginia, human motivation is to maintain four basic psychological needs: belonging, self-esteem, control over one’s environment, having a meaningful existence. Hales and his team created several different scenarios to see how people reacted when those basic needs were threatened by ostracism. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”In order to restore those needs, people can engage in a variety of behaviours. Some of them are pretty positive,” Hales said. “But there are also times when aggression may be a more attractive alternative, especially if people are trying to restore their needs for meaningful existence or control over the environment.” In a study, published in the Journal of Social Issues, the team studied the reactions of people who would not ordinarily be interested in identifying with extreme groups. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”But when you are ostracised and starved of social connection, you might be temporarily more open to groups that would be otherwise unappealing,” he said, much like a very hungry person might be more open to eating food that normally would not be tempting. Another study, detailed in the Journal of Social Psychology, examined how people feel when their companions paid more attention to their cellphones than their partners. “What we found is that people reported greater threats to their basic needs when they had recalled an experience where their conversation partner had used a cellphone,” Hales said, adding that phone-induced ostracism hurt women more than men. In a third collection of experiments, Hales revealed that feeling ignored or unacknowledged is worse for a person’s mental health than receiving bad news. On the other hand, being acknowledged eased the pain of the rejection. “We know ostracism is a hurtful experience,” Hales said. “You’re essentially being treated like a ghost, like you’re not even there,” he added.
In July 2018, Olivia de Havilland celebrated her 102nd birthday. The retired actress has been living in Paris ever since the 1950s, but today is rather more widely noted not as a resident of the French capital, but as the Classic Hollywood’s grande dame. Among her best-praised roles is that of Melanie Hamilton Wilkes, in Gone with the Wind (1939). Of the four leading actors and actresses in this timeless classic, which also include the now late Vivien Leigh, Leslie Howard, and Clark Gable, only de Havilland, is still among us — her star shining on.Olivia de Havilland, 1940s.The star was born in Tokyo, on a summer’s day of July 1, 1916, in a world torn by an ongoing war. Her parents were Walter de Havilland and Lillian Fontaine. Walter de Havilland, a Cambridge graduate, had relocated with his spouse in Japan due to his studies and both of the couple’s daughters were born there.Olivia’s sister was Joan Fontaine, also a famous actress. Although the pair is remembered for a lasting feud between each other, they are also the only pair of siblings to have both grabbed an Academy Award for a leading role in a movie.Olivia de Havilland as Melanie Hamilton in Gone With the Wind.De Havilland was largely influenced by her mother, a stage actress herself. She had her first big year in 1933 when she took the role of Hermia in Shakespeare’s best-known comedy A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The piece was produced by Austrian film and theater director Max Reinhardt and it showed at the Hollywood Bowl.It was this performance that brought de Havilland a full-time contract with Warner Brothers. Her career had just jump-started.In the following years, the actress would recurrently co-star alongside her Australian counterpart, Errol Flynn. The pair first appeared together on the big screen in 1935 in Captain Blood. Three years later, again siding next to Flynn, de Havilland played Maid Marian in one of the top 10 box-office hits of the year, The Adventures of Robin Hood.Studio publicity portrait for Gone with the Wind, 1939.However, the real fame for Dame Olivia came once she accepted the role in Gone with the Wind, the film that deeply moved audiences at the end of the 1930s, and ever after. A drama set in the days of the American Civil War, based on the novel penned by Margaret Mitchell, proved a classic as the years went by.In a 2004 interview for the New York Times, de Havilland remarked that she never gets bored of discussing the movie again and again, and that she herself has enjoyed watching it 26 times in total.Olivia de Havilland, publicity photo for Captain Blood, 1935.De Havilland depicts the amiable character of Melanie Hamilton in the 1939 classic, in a striking contrast to the blazing Vivien Leigh who takes on the character of Scarlett O’Hara. While both the women in the film initially have a love interest in Ashley Wilkes, played by Leslie Howard, it is Hamilton who wins him in the end. The flamboyant character of Rhett Butler, played by Gable, who couples with O’Hara.Over interviews, de Havilland has also talked about difficulties some of the cast faced while filming. For instance, Clark Gable was faced with a scene in which his character was heartbroken due to the loss of his daughter Bonnie. According to de Havilland, Gable struggled with this particular scene, one which he shared with de Havilland, as he was supposed cry in front of the camera.Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh in Gone With the Wind.“He was worried: you see, he had never cried on the screen before. He thought it was not masculine to cry. He was so worried about it,” the actress reportedly said.Glamorous Hollywood leading Ladies Quotes.However, de Havilland also encouraged him: “I remember I said, ‘Tears denote strength of character, not weakness. Crying makes you intensely human.’ He agreed, rehearsed it, and it turned out to be one of the most memorable scenes in the movie.”Olivia de Havilland and Vivien Leigh, publicity photo for Gone with the Wind, 1939.For her role in Gone with the Wind, de Havilland earned her first Academy Award nomination. She did’t win this one but did scoop the Oscar for her role as Josephine Norris in Each His Own (1946), and for playing Catherine Sloper in The Heiress (1949).During her decades-spanning career, de Havilland worked on about 50 movies, remaining active until the 1980s. With an empire of motion pictures behind her, as well as the well-deserved recognition and awards, the last-standing true star of the 1930s has indeed made a lasting mark in the history of the film industry.Olivia de Havilland, publicity photo for Santa Fe Trail, 1940.And if you are wondering what de Havilland is doing at 102 — she is just past a recently filed lawsuit. The reason? Remember that feud between her and her sister? According to de Havilland, the TV show Feud took it a step too far.Read another story from us: Wonder Woman Gal Gadot Set to Portray Actress-Inventor Hedy Lamarr“The creators of Feud used my identity without my consent and put false words in my mouth, including having me publicly calling my sister, Joan Fontaine, a ‘bitch’,” she wrote to The Guardian in March this year. Later that same month, the lawsuit was thrown out.Stefan is a freelance writer and a regular contributor to The Vintage News. He is a graduate in Literature. He also runs the blog This City Knows
He was ridiculed plenty throughout his extraordinary career, but it seemed Michael Jackson wasn’t averse to poking fun at himself. This was nowhere more evident than in the work of spoof songsmith “Weird Al” Yankovic, who parodied ‘Beat It’ as ‘Eat It’ and ‘Bad’ as ‘Fat’ respectively. The two men share distinctive looks. Weird Al (real name Alfred Matthew Yankovic) has sported the same curly-haired, accordion-carrying image for decades, whereas Jackson had his various phases, each as iconic as the last. Perhaps it made sense for the pair to gravitate toward each other in this unexpected way.Weird Al Yankovic performing live in concert during his 2010 Tour. Photo by Kristine Slipson CC BY 3.0In a tribute piece to Jackson, published by Rolling Stone shortly after the King of Pop’s death in 2009, Weird Al mentioned how sceptical he was approaching the great man in the first place, describing it as “a shot in the dark.”This was back in 1984 for ‘Eat It.’ While a parody doesn’t legally require the subject’s say so to proceed, Yankovic always obtains permission. To his surprise, Jackson was more than alright with the idea.Portrait of American musician, parodist, and comedian Weird Al Yankovic as he poses with various food items during a photo shoot, Los Angeles, California, March 20, 1984. The items are all referenced in his song ‘Eat It,’ a parody of Michael Jackson’s ‘Beat It.’ Photo by Bob Riha, Jr./Getty Images“He not only returned our phone calls, but he approved it. He thought it was a funny idea. Then when we did the second parody, ‘Fat,’ he was nice enough to let us use his subway set for the video, so he’s always been very supportive.”It was a major career boost for the long-haired lampooner. He’d gotten his break at 16, when radio personality Dr. Demento put debut effort “Belvedere Cruisin” on the air in 1976. Though an original composition, he was already creating his comedic takes on popular tracks.Jackson performing in June 1988. Photo by Zoran Veselinovic CC-BY-SAJackson’s involvement however was in a different league. Yankovic told Rolling Stone “I don’t know what kind of career I would have today if it hadn’t been for Michael Jackson… ‘Eat It’ basically changed me from an unknown into a guy that got recognized at Burger King.” It got to the point that Madonna supplied her own idea to him for ‘Like A Surgeon.’He didn’t always have a smooth ride with his intended targets. A 2016 Mental Floss article runs down those who weren’t keen on the Weird Al treatment. These included Prince and Weezer. Paul McCartney took Yankovic’s idea of turning ‘Live and Let Die’ into ‘Chicken Pot Pie’ in good humor, but refused to endorse it because he was vegetarian.Weird Al Yankovic at Radio City Music Hall performing the parody “Amish Paradise.” Photo by slgckgc CC BY 2.0As for his legendary version of Coolio’s ‘Gangsta’s Paradise,’ titled ‘Amish Paradise’, it got released, but it could have come to a shuddering halt. According to Weird Al, “Two separate people from my label told me that they had personally talked to Coolio … and that he told them that he was okay with the whole parody idea … Halfway into production, my record label told me that Coolio’s management had a problem with the parody.” Top 10 Weird Al Yankovic original songs.Caught between a rock and a hard place, Yankovic laid down the track. An apparently unhappy Coolio criticized it at first, then said sorry and embraced it in later years when it became clear a misunderstanding had taken place.Weird Al and Michael Jackson’s paths actually crossed several years after the release of ‘Eat It.’ The accordion player was bowled over, saying “Seeing him in person was amazing, it was otherworldly. He was and continues to be so iconic, it’s hard to even conceive of him as a human being. He always was bigger than life.”Jackson at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival for the Ghosts music video premiere. Photo:Georges Biard CC BY-SA 3.0Jackson was reportedly a fan of Yankovic’s movie UHF (1989), in which he played an eccentric TV station manager alongside Michael Richards, who was about to break through as Kramer on “Seinfeld.” However when Weird Al hatched a plan to spoof ‘Black or White’ (1991) he got the thumbs down.“(He) thought ‘Black or White’ was more of a message song, and he didn’t feel as comfortable with a parody of that one, which I completely understood, and in a way, he did me a huge favor, because I was already getting pegged as the guy who did Michael Jackson parodies, and because he wasn’t so into it, I decided to go with Nirvana, which wound up revitalizing my career.”‘Weird Al’ Yankovic at Beacon Theater on Sunday night, February 6, 2000. He is singing ‘Fat,’ a parody of ‘Bad’ by Michael Jackson. Photo by Hiroyuki Ito/Getty ImagesJust as MJ had sparked something off for Al with ‘Eat It,’ so he helped him again, this time by rejecting his offer. Yankovic does sometimes put out free versions of spurned songs, but only if he knows the artist wouldn’t mind.Read another story from us: Laurel and Hardy: Hollywood’s Greatest FriendshipIn a 2015 feature for The Independent to promote his world tour, he was referred to as “the third artist to have a Top 40 hit in each of the last four decades. The other two are Michael Jackson and Madonna.” Weird Al has entered music’s Hall of Fame, and he did it by thoroughly roasting its inhabitants.Steve Palace is a writer, journalist and comedian from the UK. Sites he contributes to include The Vintage News, Art Knews Magazine and The Hollywood News. His short fiction has been published as part of the Iris Wildthyme range from Obverse Books.
About one hundred and thirty years ago the Michigan State University Museum received a gift of a five hundred year old princess mummy, a young Incan girl from Bolivia. During her life she lived near the modern city of La Paz and has finally returned home with the assistance of the U.S. Embassy and William A. Lovis, an emeritus professor of anthropology at Michigan State University. The mummy, called Ñusta, a Quechua Incan word for “Princess”, was returned to the Bolivian Embassy in January of 2019 by US Art, known for its fastidious transportation of fine art objects, and then taken to South America to be reburied in her homeland.Dr. Lovis emphasizes that it is not known if she was really a princess but the way in which she was buried may offer a clue. Ñusta was found in a chullpa or stone tomb with offerings of several different types of plants, pouches, a pair of sandals, beads and a small clay jar according to federalnewsnetwork. She was found dressed in garments made from the hair of either a llama or alpaca both of which are native to the region and have been domesticated for hundreds of years. She has feathers in her hands; still has a few teeth and her dark hair looks as though it was just been styled and plaited into braids.Known as Ñusta, a Quechua word for “Princess,” the mummy amazes many because of its excellent state of preservation: Its black braids seem recently combed and its hands still cling to small feathers: https://t.co/6XTSm0sDIV pic.twitter.com/hZRXWea3fD— Local 12/WKRC-TV (@Local12) August 24, 2019She was found in a sitting position as though she had been propped up in a corner with her legs tucked up and her hands in her lap. Dr. Lovis claims that chullpa were reserved for the elite members of the tribe. Ñusta appears to have been about eight years old when she died and it is very possible she was a religious sacrifice which would further elevate her status.Ethnically she was Aymaran, from a civilization that appeared after the fall of the Tiahuanaco people and thrived between 1200 to the late 1400s making her lifetime very close to when Columbus sailed from Spain and the Incan conquest by the Spaniards in 1572.Buried in a stone tomb alongside such tokens as sandals, beads and feathers, the girl—known as Ñusta, or “Princess” in the indigenous Quechua language—lived in the Andean highlands during the second half of the 15th century. https://t.co/43unJhTrN2— Smithsonian Magazine (@SmithsonianMag) August 22, 2019DNA samples will be tested to definitively indicate the age of the girl and her funerary objects. It will also reveal what type of food she ate though it is probable that her diet consisted of the maize, beans, cocoa and grasses that were found with her. According to The Sun Dr. Lovis remarked, “While I am now quite pleased and personally gratified that the physical transfer is complete, my continuing goal, in retirement, is to make the information we acquired available to Bolivia and other interested audiences and to continue my collaboration with the National Archaeology Museum in La Paz.”Related Video:Scientists from Idaho State University, the Idaho Museum of Natural History, Michigan State University, the University of New Hampshire and Pennsylvania State University have all cooperated in researching and returning the mummy. Archaeology.wiki tells us Anthropologists Samantha Blatt of Idaho State University and Amy Michael from the University of New Hampshire are studying the structures in the enamel and roots of her teeth to determine the status of her health and if there were any health stress events during her life.Amy Commendador, Manager of the Earl H. Swanson Archaeological Repository at the Idaho Museum of Natural History at Idaho State University is studying Ñusta’s hair to determine her diet and any migration which may have taken place close to her end.Related Article: The Spooky Peruvian Mummies with HairBolivian Culture Minister Wilma Alanoca claims that while many archeological finds taken illegally have been returned this is the first example of human remains reintroduced into Bolivia. Ñusta’s funerary items are on display in La Paz for Dia de los Natitas – the Day of the Skulls; a celebration that honors the dead on November 9th similar to the Day of the Dead on November 1st and 2nd in Mexico.Ñusta has been temporarily placed into refrigeration at the National Museum of Archaeology of Bolivia near the Prado in La Paz until she and her possessions are properly buried.